SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|9 Months Ended|
Jan. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission applicable to interim reports of companies filing as a smaller reporting company. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Report on Form 10-K for the year ended April 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on July 29, 2021. In the opinion of management, the accompanying condensed interim financial statements include all adjustments necessary in order to make the financial statements not misleading. The results of operations for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any other future period. Certain notes to the financial statements that would substantially duplicate the disclosures contained in the audited financial statements for the most recent fiscal year as reported in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K have been omitted. The accompanying condensed balance sheet at April 30, 2021 has been derived from the audited balance sheet at April 30, 2021 contained in such Form 10-K.
The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with U.S. GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s critical accounting policies that involve significant judgment and estimates include stock-based compensation, warrant valuation, and valuation of deferred income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a remaining maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of January 31, 2022 and April 30, 2021, the Company had no cash equivalents.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, Fair Value Measurement, defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The fair value hierarchy is based on three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 assumptions: Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities including liabilities resulting from imbedded derivatives associated with certain warrants to purchase Common Stock.
The fair values of warrants issued in connection with equity or debt issuance are determined using the Black-Scholes valuation model, a “Level 3” fair value measurement, based on the estimated fair value of the underlying Common Stock, volatility based on the historical volatility data of similar companies, considering the industry, products and market capitalization of such other entities, the expected life based on the remaining contractual term of the conversion option and warrants and the risk free interest rate based on the implied yield available on U.S. Treasury Securities with a maturity equivalent to the warrants’ contractual life.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs consist of scientific consulting fees and lab supplies, as well as fees paid to clinical research organizations that conduct certain research and development activities on behalf of the Company.
The Company has acquired and may continue to acquire the rights to develop and commercialize new product candidates from third parties. The upfront payments to acquire licenses, products or rights, as well as any future milestone payments, are immediately recognized as research and development expense provided that there is no alternative future use of the rights in other research and development projects.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for stock options on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period and account for forfeitures as they occur. The Company’s stock-based compensation costs are based upon the grant date fair value of options estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. To the extent any stock option grants are made subject to the achievement of a performance-based milestone, management evaluates when the achievement of any such performance-based milestone is probable based on the satisfaction of the performance conditions as of the reporting date.
The Black-Scholes option pricing model utilizes inputs which are highly subjective assumptions and generally require significant judgment. Certain of such assumptions involve inherent uncertainties and the application of significant judgment. As a result, if factors or expected outcomes change and the Company uses significantly different assumptions or estimates, the Company’s stock-based compensation could be materially different.
The Company accounts for stock warrants as either equity instruments, derivative liabilities, or liabilities in accordance with ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”), depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement.
Debt Issued with Warrants
The Company considers guidance within ASC 470-20, Debt (“Subtopic 470-20”), ASC 480, and ASC 815 when accounting for the issuance of convertible debt with detachable warrants. As described above under the caption “Warrants,” the Company classifies warrants to purchase Common Stock as either equity instruments, derivative liabilities, or liabilities depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement.
In circumstances in which debt is issued with equity-classified warrants, the proceeds from the issuance of convertible debt are allocated to the warrants and convertible debt based on their relative estimated fair values. The allocated fair value of equity warrants is recorded as a discount to the convertible debt with a corresponding increase to additional paid-in capital. The debt discount is amortized as interest expense using the effective interest method.
Embedded Derivatives. The Company considers whether there are any embedded features in debt instruments that require bifurcation and separate accounting as derivative financial instruments pursuant to ASC 815.
Beneficial Conversion Feature. If the amount allocated to the convertible debt results in an effective per share conversion price less than the fair value of the underlying Common Stock on the commitment date, the intrinsic value of this beneficial conversion feature is recorded as a discount to the convertible debt with a corresponding increase to additional paid-in capital. The beneficial conversion feature discount is equal to the difference between the effective conversion price and the fair value of the underlying Common Stock at the commitment date, unless limited by the remaining proceeds allocated to the debt.
The Company utilizes FASB ASC Topic No. 260, Earnings per Share. Basic loss per share is computed by dividing loss available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted loss per share is computed similar to basic loss per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. Diluted loss per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if convertible preferred stock, options and warrants were to be exercised or converted or otherwise resulted in the issuance of Common Stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.
Since the effects of outstanding options, warrants and convertible preferred stock are anti-dilutive in the periods presented, shares of Common Stock underlying these instruments have been excluded from the computation of loss per common share.
Recent Accounting Standards
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations upon adoption.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, (“ASU 2018-13”). The amendments modify the disclosure requirements in Topic 820 to add disclosures regarding changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty. Certain disclosure requirements in Topic 820 are also removed or modified. The amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Certain of the amendments are to be applied prospectively while others are to be applied retrospectively. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 as of May 1, 2020. Adoption of this standard had no material impact on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 as of May 1, 2021. Adoption of this standard had no material impact on the Company’s financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). This ASU reduces the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock. As well as amend the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity to reduce form-over-substance-based accounting conclusions. In addition, this ASU improves and amends the related EPS guidance. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods therein. Adoption is either a modified retrospective method or a fully retrospective method of transition. The adoption of this standard on May 1, 2021 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
The Company has considered all other recently issued accounting standards and does not believe the adoption of such standards will have a material impact on its financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef