Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

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SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Apr. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”).

 

Accounting Estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements, in conformity with U.S. GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s critical accounting policies that involve significant judgment and estimates include research and development, share-based compensation, warrant valuation, and valuation of deferred income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a remaining maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of April 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company had no cash equivalents.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, Fair Value Measurement, defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The fair value hierarchy is based on three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable:

 

Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

 

Level 2: Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

 

Level 3 assumptions: Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities including liabilities resulting from imbedded derivatives associated with certain warrants to purchase common stock.

 

The fair values of warrants issued in connection with equity or debt issuance are determined using the Black-Scholes valuation model, a “Level 3” fair value measurement, based on the estimated fair value of the underlying common stock, volatility based on the historical volatility data of similar companies, considering the industry, products and market capitalization of such other entities, the expected life based on the remaining contractual term of the conversion option and warrants and the risk free interest rate based on the implied yield available on U.S. Treasury Securities with a maturity equivalent to the warrants’ contractual life.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company determines its income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under the asset and liability approach, deferred income tax assets and liabilities are calculated and recorded based upon the future tax consequences of temporary differences by applying enacted statutory tax rates applicable to future periods for differences between the financial statements carrying amounts and the tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. Generally, deferred income taxes are classified as current or non-current in accordance with the classification of the related asset or liability. Those not related to an asset or a liability are classified as current or non-current depending on the periods in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided for significant deferred income tax assets when it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. As of April 30, 2022, the Company had fully reserved the net deferred income tax assets by taking a full valuation allowance against these assets.

 

The Company recognizes tax liabilities by prescribing a minimum probability threshold that a tax position must meet before a financial statement benefit is recognized and also provides guidance on de-recognition, measurement, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. The minimum threshold is defined as a tax position that is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the applicable taxing authority, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefit to be recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amount recorded, such differences impact income tax expense in the period in which such determination is made. Interest and penalties, if any, related to accrued liabilities for potential tax assessments are included in income tax expense. U.S. GAAP also requires management to evaluate tax positions taken by the Company and recognize a liability if the Company has taken uncertain tax positions that more likely than not would not be sustained upon examination by applicable taxing authorities. Management of the Company has evaluated tax positions taken by the Company and has concluded that as of April 30, 2022, there were no uncertain tax positions taken, or expected to be taken, that would require recognition of a liability that would require disclosure in the financial statements.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs consist of scientific consulting fees and lab supplies, as well as fees paid to clinical research organizations that conduct certain research and development activities on behalf of the Company.

 

The Company has acquired and may continue to acquire the rights to develop and commercialize new product candidates from third parties. The upfront payments to acquire licenses, products or rights, as well as any future milestone payments, are immediately recognized as research and development expense provided that there is no alternative future use of the rights in other research and development projects.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for stock options on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period and accounts for forfeitures as they occur. The Company’s stock-based compensation costs are based upon the grant date fair value of options estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. To the extent any stock option grants are made subject to the achievement of a performance-based milestone, management evaluates when the achievement of any such performance-based milestone is probable based on the satisfaction of the performance conditions as of the reporting date.

 

The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for restricted stock on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period and accounts for forfeitures as they occur. The Company’s stock-based compensation for restricted stock is based upon the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock.

 

The Black-Scholes option pricing model utilizes inputs which are highly subjective assumptions and generally require significant judgment. Certain of such assumptions involve inherent uncertainties and the application of significant judgment. As a result, if factors or expected outcomes change and the Company uses significantly different assumptions or estimates, the Company’s stock-based compensation could be materially different.

 

Warrants

 

The Company accounts for stock warrants as either equity instruments, derivative liabilities, or liabilities in accordance with ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”), depending on the specific terms of the warrant agreement.

 

During the year ended April 30, 2022, based on the terms of the Company’s warrant agreements, the Company accounted for the warrants as equity instruments as the warrants were indexed to the common stock, required settlement in shares and would be classified as equity under ASC 815.

 

Loss per Common Share

 

The Company utilizes FASB ASC Topic No. 260, Earnings per Share. Basic loss per share is computed by dividing loss available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted loss per share is computed similar to basic loss per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. Diluted loss per common share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if convertible preferred stock, options and warrants were to be exercised or converted or otherwise resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.

 

Since the effects of outstanding options, warrants and convertible preferred stock are anti-dilutive in the periods presented, shares of common stock underlying these instruments have been excluded from the computation of loss per common share.

 

The following sets forth the number of shares of common stock underlying outstanding convertible preferred stock, options, warrants, and convertible notes that have been excluded from the computation of loss per common share:

 

    For the Year Ended April 30,  
    2022     2021  
Series A convertible preferred stock     -       15,000,000  
Stock options (1)     13,700,000       16,300,000  
Restricted stock     187,510       -  
Warrants     10,149,788       6,769,635  
Convertible notes     -       245,999  
      24,037,298       38,315,634  

 

(1) The Company has excluded 2,000,000 stock options, with an exercise price of $0.0004, from its anti-dilutive securities as these shares have been included in our determination of basic loss per share as they represent shares issuable for little or no cash consideration upon the satisfaction of certain conditions pursuant to ASC 260-10-45-14.

 

Recent Accounting Standards

 

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

 

In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-10, Codification Improvements to make incremental improvements to GAAP and address stakeholder suggestions, including, among other things, clarifying that the requirement to provide comparative information in the financial statements extends to the corresponding disclosures section. The Company adopted the ASU effective May 1, 2021. The amendments in this update should be applied retrospectively and at the beginning of the period that includes the adoption date. The impact of adopting the ASU was immaterial to the consolidated results of operations, cash flows, financial position, and disclosures.

 

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 as of May 1, 2021. Adoption of this standard had no material impact on the Company’s financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). This ASU reduces the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock. As well as amend the guidance for the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity to reduce form-over-substance-based accounting conclusions. In addition, this ASU improves and amends the related EPS guidance. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods therein. Adoption is either a modified retrospective method or a fully retrospective method of transition. The adoption of this standard on May 1, 2021, did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.

 

The Company has considered all other recently issued accounting standards and does not believe the adoption of such standards will have a material impact on its financial statements.